131 WTO, Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration (WT/MIN(05)/DEC), 22 December 2005, item 6; However, the agreement reached in Hong Kong did not preclude the continuation of negotiations on retail issues (e.g. B value and volume commitments): see z.B. Challenge Paper of 30 April 2007 paragraph 55, referred to on 7 May 2013. 62 European Communities – Customs classification of certain computer equipment (5 June 1998) WT/DS62/AB/R, WT/DS67/AB/R and WT/DS68/AB/R, item 1. 84 (repeatedly in the context of agricultural trade in Canada – Measures Concerning the Import of Milk and the Export of Milk Products (October 13, 1999) WT/DS103/AB/R and WT/DS113/AB/R, paragraph 131). On the other hand, the GATT modalities cannot serve as a basis for dispute settlement procedures but can be used for interpretative purposes: cf. Like what. B European Communities – Export subsidies on sugar (15). (7.350) WT/DS265/R, paragraph 7.350 (where the panel states: `[c]learly, the [GATT modalities] are not a covered agreement and therefore cannot provide for WTO rights and obligations vis-à-vis Members. Nevertheless, [they] could be relevant to the interpretation of the Convention on Agriculture, including Members` timetables). In Chad, food crops account for about a quarter of GDP, but the country imports most of its cereals. Marketing is low, since 70% of food plants (mainly cereals) are intended for domestic consumption.

Production is largely done using traditional methods. Credits are scarce. Trade links between rural and urban areas are very weak and infrastructure is poorly developed in both countries. In Chad, only 7,000 hectares are irrigated, while it is estimated that 5.6 million hectares could be irrigated. Food self-sufficiency is declining, with 10% of Kenya`s staple food products – maize – imported last year. If this percentage increases, the price of domestic maize producers is likely to fall, because urban markets will buy imported grain cheaper. This phenomenon is well documented in Mexico, where hundreds of thousands of small-scale maize farmers in the south of the country have been squeezed from their livelihoods by the influx of cheap imported grain after the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The same process has affected India`s small-scale edible oil producers since the industry was partially liberalized in 1998. India, which could source edible oils on its own, became a major importer within a few months.

Consumer groups in developing countries have found that the limited benefits of trade liberalization under the AoA benefit larger and better capitalized farms than farmers who own small farms. These problems are being exaggerated by the fall in world prices for coffee, cocoa, maize and most other raw materials. The EU has supported the existing AoA system to deal with domestic aid, while South Korea has called for greater flexibility on domestic support reductions, tariffs, tariff quotas and the scope of the green box. . . .